It is an attractive tree that does best in moist to dry well-drained soil but adapts to different soil types. Chinkapin oak is notable for its shaggy bark, and its shiny, green leaves with shallow teeth that turn upwards at the tip and have a tiny projection (papilla) at each tip. Dwarf Chinkapin Oak - this is a much smaller species that often doesn't get much bigger than a shrub. ... Chinkapin oak is named because of the resemblance of the leaves to the Allegheny chinquapin (Castanea pumila), a relative of American chestnut (C. dentata). It is a component of the forest cover type White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 52) and the Post Oak-Blackjack Oak (Type 40) (2). [citation needed]. Facts About Chinkapin Trees Chinkapins are native to this country, growing naturally in the wild from New England to the Mexican border. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. [citation needed], Severe wildfire kills chinkapin oak saplings and small pole-size trees, but these often resprout. Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Bark - Photo by Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org . The small, sweet acorns are possibly the most preferred by wildlife. This oak tree has branches that emerge from the trunk reasonably close to the ground. Keep your eyes peeled for grouse, turkey, quail and small creatures like chipmunks and squirrels. [2], Chinkapin oak is closely related to the smaller but generally similar dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus prinoides). The Chinquapin Oak Tree is a medium sized tree in the white oak group, and the bark is gray-brown and scaly and quite distinct in the landscape. Chinkapin oak prefers well drained soils along bottomlands or on limestone ridges bordering streams where it grows best. The tree's scientific name honors Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (1753–1815), a Lutheran pastor and amateur botanist in Pennsylvania. 339 Science II Height: Varies with species. In summer, excellent foliage is appreciated for its shade. As part of the group of white oaks, they bear very pale, white bark. On more moist sites it is subclimax to climax. Since its recognition as a different species from the similar-appearing chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), Q. muehlenbergii has generally been regarded as a distinct species; no subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within it, although a few infraspecific variants had been accepted in the past. Height: 45’ Spread: 45’ Site characteristics: Sandy to clay to rocky soils; full to partial sun Zone: 5a - 8b Wet/dry: Tolerates moderate drought Native range: Eastern United States pH: 5.0 - 8.2 Other: Extremely tolerant of alkaline soil Shape: Rounded and open Beaver feed on the bark and twigs , and porcupines consume the bark . The bark is thin, light brown, and scaly. Much like the White Oak, the bark has shallow grooves, an ash-like look and peels off as the tree matures making it a striking specimen both in landscape and in the wild. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. Chinkapin Oak Leaves - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. The two species generally occur in different habitats: chinquapin oak is typically found on calcareous soils and rocky slopes, while dwarf chinkapin oak is usually found on acidic substrates, primarily sand or sandy soils, and also dry shales. The branches and chestnut-like leaves form a round crown for the perfect shade tree. Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a native oak which is often not recognized as an oak when first encountered. Beaver feed on the bark and twigs [ 23 ], and porcupines consume the bark [ 71 ]. This tree is a reliable grower, even in the poorest of sites. Habitat: Grows on rocky slopes and exposed bluffs. These are bare root seedlings. Swamp Chestnut Oak The bark is quite thin, breaking into plate-like scales similar to white oak. The two species have contrasting kinds of bark: chinkapin oak has a gray, flaky bark very similar to that of white oak (Q. alba) but with a more yellow-brown cast to it (hence the occasional name yellow oak for this species), while chestnut oak has dark, solid, deeply ridged bark. [5] In Canada it is only found in southern Ontario, and in Mexico it ranges from Coahuila south to Hidalgo. Distinguishing characteristics: Distinguished from other oaks by leaves with sharp teeth but lacking sinuses. The roots of some seedlings may be trimmed for ease of planting and packaging purposes. Like all oaks, it does have a cluster of buds at the end of branches. Diseases that Can Affect Dwarf Chinkapin Oak The range extends from Maine to Nebraska and south to North Carolina and Texas. Often maturing between 50 to 75 feet tall. Quercus). The acorns are eaten by squirrels, mice, voles, chipmunks, deer, turkey, and other birds. Bark and acorns are entirely different, with sawtooth oak bark being dark brown and furrowed, while chinkapin oak bark is almost white and flaky. The chinkapin oak also has smaller acorns than the chestnut oak or another similar species, the swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii), which have some of the largest acorns of any oaks. Chinkapin Oak loves alkaline soil! Chinkapin oak is normally a tree, but on very dry and/or on soils with low fertility, it will become shrubby. [2][6], Chinkapin oak is also sometimes confused with the related chestnut oak (Quercus montana), which it closely resembles. Chinkapin oaks perform well in alkaline soils. However, some overlap in leaf characteristics can occur among these species, and they may hybridize in areas where their ranges overlap. Sawtooth oak acorns have large, shaggy caps unlike those of chinkapin oak. In the Missouri Ozarks a redcedar-chinkapin oak association has been described. It grows on both northerly and southerly aspects but is more common on the warmer southerly aspects. Small chinkapin oaks can be confused with dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus prinoides); dwarf chinkapin oak has smaller leaves with 3 to 7 pairs of veins and teeth and shorter petioles. feed on the acorns. Oak, Dwarf chinkapin (Quercus prinoides) Oak, red (Quercus rubra) This large oak grows in moist, well-drained, forested sites. It is native over all of Iowa except for the northwest one-quarter of the state. Site Requirements: Best growth in moist, well-drained soils. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed deer consume the acorns of chinquapin oak [ 13, 52, 65 ]. Growth Rate: slow ... Bark is thin like the white oak. Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed deer consume the acorns of chinquapin oak [13,52,65]. [citation needed], Like that of other white oak species, the wood of the chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a durable hardwood prized for many types of construction. Mature trees of Rock Chestnut Oak have deeply furrowed bark, which is very unlike the thin flaky bark of Chinkapin Oak. Photo courtesy of Texas Tree Trails. Chinkapin Oak Tree - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Hardiness: Varies with the species of oak tree ranging from zone 3 to zone 9. The chinkapin oak is a large white oak tree that grows to between 45 and 110 ft. (20 – 33 m). Capable of growing upwards of 100 feet. Chinkapin oak is a member of the white oak group with chestnut-type leaves. Chinkapin Oak Quercus muehlenbergii Description & Overview. Chinkapin Oak is … The acorns of chinquapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source [ 30, 52 ]. The leaves are thick, firm, light yellow green above and lighter green to silvery white below. Early pioneers used its straight wood to make thousands of miles of fences in the states of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. Faunal Associations: The Obscure Scale (Melanaspis obscura) has been found on the bark of Dwarf Chinkapin Oak (Quercus prinoides), while larvae of the Round Bullet Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis quercusglobulus) form galls on the branches of this oak and larvae of other gall wasps (Cynipidae) form galls on its buds (ScaleNet, 2014; Bassett, 1881).). Strong tree, good for wildlife food and windbreaks. Its whitish bark and branch structure create a beautiful silhouette in winter. Chinkapin is not used extensively as an ornamental tree, although it is quite tolerant tougher sites. Chinkapin Oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) Zones 3-9. The acorns of chinquapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source [30,52]. The wood of chinkapin oak is hard, heavy, strong, durable and shock resistant. Young trees retain a pyramidal to oval habit with a pale gray, scaly ridged central trunk. [citation needed], The most common small tree and shrub species found in association with chinkapin oak include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Vaccinium spp., Viburnum spp., hawthorns (Crataegus spp. Its leaves are simple, alternate, 3 to 6 inches in length and 11/2 to 3 inches wide, with 8 to 13 pairs of veins and an equal number of large, sharply pointed teeth. It does not have lobed leaves like most other oaks; its leaves are toothed like a chestnut. The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. About half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black. ), black cherry (Prunus serotina), cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American basswood (Tilia americana), black walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut (J. cinerea), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. [citation needed], The most serious defoliating insects that attack chinkapin oak are the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the orangestriped oakworm (Anisota senatoria), and the variable oakleaf caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo). Any landscape, fire scars serve as entry points for decay-causing fungi, and sumacs ( spp. Are found on dry, limestone outcrops in the states of Ohio, Kentucky and.. For wildlife food and windbreaks gray Hairstreak butterfly and the resulting decay can cause losses. 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